Ecoinvent geography definitions

Introduction

The ecoinvent centre provide consistent and comprehensive geodata for the locations used in the ecoinvent database. This document describes how these location geometries are created and processed, and gives details on particular locations that may be confusing.

Purpose of location data in ecoinvent

Location data in ecoinvent is used to locate inventory processes in space, define and construct market and market inputs, and for various forms of regionalized life cycle inventory analysis and impact assessment.

Statement on geographical controversies

Neither the EcoSpold 2 data format, nor its authors, take any position on geographical areas of controversy. The geographical shapes presented in the EcoSpold 2 data files should not be taken as absolute definitions of country or region borders. Rather, they are approximations consistent with common understanding of these countries and regions, for use in a life cycle inventory database. If subjective judgments have to be made, we have made choices based on our understanding of what would be best for clear and understandable life cycle inventories. If you find a error or discrepancy in the base data file, please let us know by filing a bug.

Data formats

The official ecospold2 format for specifying geographies is a single XML file, with location geodata included in the KML format inside the XML file. The official geographies file is here:

However, this format is not easy to work with for most programming languages or GIS programs. The location data and metadata are also available in a number of GIS formats. Selections of the location data are also provided, as a single file containing all regions can be a bit unwieldy.

Description GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
All locations GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Countries GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
All ecoinvent except for countries GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
UN regions GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
UN subregions GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Electricity networks GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Legacy Electricity networks GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Electricity networks (USA only) GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Aluminium-producing regions GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Europe/Asia GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Russia GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Ecoinvent special GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile
Provinces and states GeoJSON Geopackage KMZ ESRI Shapefile

Methodology

The primary data source for the ecoinvent geodata is the Natural Earth data, and in particular the 1:10 million cultural vectors, including boundary lakes, both Admin 0 – Countries and Admin 1 – States, Provinces. In addition to Natural Earth, custom geometries were drawn for NERC regions in the United States of America which split individual states.

Processing begins by entering all state/province level regions into a PostGIS topological database. A topology is different from a normal geometry because it tries to store only one copy of each face edge and node, and a state or province would be defined by which common edges it bordered. For example, the boundary between France and Germany would be stored only once, and the topology of both France and Germany would reference that border. Topology is a rather complex subject which is not explained in detail here; interested readers should go through this presentation by Sandro Santilli. The use of topologies give several nice advantages:

  • Consistency: Each border is only defined once. Modifications to border edges apply to all affected regions automatically.
  • Integrity: All regions are automatically valid.
  • Explicit relationships: It is fast and simple to determine spatial relationships among regions by comparing their topological faces. There is no potential for floating-point errors, as no geometry math is needed.

You can download the current set of topological faces used in Ecoinvent here.

After state/province-level data is imported, country data is imported. Country borders are automatically snapped to province borders by the database. A series of data cleaning steps is then applied. Specifically, the following is done:

  • Provinces with self-intersecting borders are fiexed using ST_MakeValid
  • Minor islands which are included in province-level data but not included in country-level data are added to the country geometries
  • Republic of Serbia is changed to Serbia
  • Svalbard and Jan Mayen and Bouvet Island geometries are removed from Norway; they have separate ISO codes
  • Cyprus No Mans Area geometry is removed from Cyprus; Cyprus No Mans Area is a separate location
  • Tokelau geometry is removed from New Zealand; Tokelau has a separate ISO code
  • Baikonur cosmodrone is reassigned from Russia to Kazakhstan
  • Netherlands is redefined to not include its Caribbean islands, which have their own ISO code
  • France is redefined to not include territories which have their own ISO codes (See France)
  • Kosovo is given the provisional ISO code XK.
  • The Mandarin names of the Chinese provinces Heilongjiang and Qinghai are corrected.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo is changed to Congo, Democratic Republic of the
  • Republic of Congo is changed to Congo
  • Federated States of Micronesia is changed to Micronesia, Federated States of
  • United Republic of Tanzania is changed to Tanzania
  • The Indian state named Uttaranchal is corrected from Uttarakhand.

In addition, the United States of America is split into the regional transmission grids, whose borders do not follow state borders.

The basic topological units in the database are usually state/province-level regions, as in this visualization of Madagascar:

_images/Madagascar.png

However, in some regions states are broken up, as in this visualization of the combination of NERC regions and state boundaries in the United States of America:

_images/NERC.png

Ecoinvent regions are defined constructively, i.e. they are built up by adding together their smallest constituent units. Intersection or difference functions are not used, as they can lead to floating-point errors and small geometrical artifacts.

After a consistent topology is constructed, the regions used in ecoinvent are extracted. For example, ecoinvent provides Australian states, so these are added individually; however, state-level data in most other countries are not used, so only the country borders are extracted. The final ecoinvent topology of the world looks like this:

_images/ecoinvent-world.png

The input data and scripts to process, combine, and export all location data, as well as this manual, are open source and freely available for download.

List of locations in ecoinvent

Countries

259 entities listed in ISO 3166-1:

Afghanistan Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area Aland Albania
Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola
Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina
Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australia
Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bajo Nuevo Bank (Petrel Is.)
Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium
Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan
Bolivia Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana
Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands
Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi
Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde
Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile
China Clipperton Island Colombia Comoros
Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica
Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus
Cyprus No Mans Area Czech Republic Denmark Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area
Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor
Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France
French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Gabon
Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana
Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada
Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey
Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Honduras Hong Kong S.A.R. Hungary
Iceland India Indonesia Iran
Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel
Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan
Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya
Kiribati Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos
Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia
Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg
Macao S.A.R Macedonia Madagascar Malawi
Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta
Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius
Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Moldova
Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat
Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia
Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia
New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria
Niue Norfolk Island North Korea Northern Cyprus
Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan
Palau Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands
Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar
Romania Russia Rwanda Réunion
Saint Barthelemy Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia
Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa
San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Scarborough Reef
Senegal Serbia Serranilla Bank Seychelles
Siachen Glacier Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten
Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia
South Africa South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands South Korea South Sudan
Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan
Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden
Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan
Tanzania Thailand The Bahamas Togo
Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia
Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu
US Naval Base Guantanamo Bay Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom United States Minor Outlying Islands United States Virgin Islands United States of America
Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vatican
Venezuela Vietnam Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara
Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe  

De facto independent countries

The country of Kosovo is included, although it is not yet completely internationally recognized.

Somaliland (Wikipedia) is included as a separate location. Somalia does not include Somaliland.

International Aluminium Institute regions

The International Aluminium Institute regions are roughly followed, although wiht some ecoinvent-specific modifications.

  • IAI producing Area 1, Africa
  • IAI producing Area 2, North America
  • IAI producing Area 2, North America, without Quebec
  • IAI producing Area 3, South America
  • IAI producing Area 4 and 5, South and East Asia, without China
  • Aluminium producing area, EU27 and EFTA countries
  • Aluminium producing area, Europe outside EU27 and EFTA
  • IAI producing Area 8, Gulf Region

UN regions and subregions

All UN macro geographical regions and subregions are included.

Note

See also graphical descriptions of UN regions and UN subregions.

UN regions

  • Africa
  • Americas
  • Asia, UN Region
  • Europe, UN Region
  • Oceania

UN subregions

  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Caribbean
  • Central America
  • Central Asia
  • Eastern Africa
  • Eastern Asia
  • Eastern Europe
  • Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Melanesia
  • Micronesia
  • Middle Africa
  • Northern Africa
  • Northern America
  • Northern Europe
  • Polynesia
  • South America
  • South-Eastern Asia
  • Southern Africa
  • Southern Asia
  • Southern Europe
  • Western Africa
  • Western Asia
  • Western Europe

Electricity networks

North America

Note

See also specific comments on North American networks and USA-only subnetworks.

  • Alaska Systems Coordinating Council
  • Florida Reliability Coordinating Council
  • HICC (Hawaii)
  • Midwest Reliability Organization
  • Midwest Reliability Organization, US part only
  • Northeast Power Coordinating Council
  • Northeast Power Coordinating Council, US part only
  • ReliabilityFirst Corporation
  • SERC Reliability Corporation
  • Southwest Power Pool
  • Texas Regional Entity
  • Western Electricity Coordinating Council
  • Western Electricity Coordinating Council, US part only

Europe

Note

See also specific comments on European Legacy networks.

  • Baltic System Operator
  • Central European Power Association
  • European Network of Transmission Systems Operators for Electricity
  • Nordic Countries Power Association
  • Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity

Ecoinvent special locations

“Cut-out” locations

Due to the way markets are linked, it is sometimes necessary to create regions without specific states or countries. The following are current included:

  • Asia without China
  • Canada without Alberta
  • Canada without Alberta and Quebec
  • Canada without Quebec
  • Europe without Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Switzerland, and the Vatican
  • Europe without Germany and Switzerland
  • Europe without Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway
  • Europe without Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Russia
  • Europe without NORDEL (NCPA)
  • Europe without Switzerland
  • Europe without Switzerland and France
  • Europe, without Russia and Turkey
  • UCTE without France
  • UCTE without Germany
  • UCTE without Germany and France

Trading blocks

  • Commonwealth of Independent States
  • North American Free Trade Agreement

Miscellaneous

  • Canary Islands (Spain also includes the Canary Islands)
  • France, including overseas territories (See France)
  • Middle East (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates)
  • Québec, Hydro-Québec distribution network
  • Serbia and Montenegro (Legacy location; Both Serbia and Montenegro are included as countries)

Australian states and territories

In addition to the country Australia, the Australian states are also provided. As a consequence, the territories Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands, which do possess ISO 3166-1 codes, are included in the location Indian Ocean Territories.

Brazilian states

In addition to the country Brazil, the Brazilian states are also provided.

  • Acre
  • Alagoas
  • Amapá
  • Amazonas
  • Bahia
  • Ceará
  • Distrito Federal
  • Espírito Santo
  • Goiás
  • Maranhão
  • Mato Grosso
  • Mato Grosso do Sul
  • Minas Gerais
  • Paraná
  • Paraíba
  • Pará
  • Pernambuco
  • Piauí
  • Rio de Janeiro
  • Rio Grande do Norte
  • Rio Grande do Sul
  • Rondônia
  • Roraima
  • Santa Catarina
  • Sergipe
  • São Paulo
  • Tocantins

Canadian provinces

In addition to the country Canada, the Canadian provinces are also provided.

  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nova Scotia
  • Nunavut
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward Island
  • Québec
  • Saskatchewan
  • Yukon

Chinese provinces

In addition to the country China, the Chinese provinces are also provided.

  • Anhui (安徽)
  • Beijing (北京)
  • Chongqing (重庆)
  • Fujian (福建)
  • Gansu (甘肃)
  • Guangdong (广东)
  • Guangxi (广西壮族自治区)
  • Guizhou (贵州)
  • Hainan (海南)
  • Hebei (河北)
  • Heilongjiang (黑龙江省)
  • Henan (河南)
  • Hubei (湖北)
  • Hunan (湖南)
  • Inner Mongol (内蒙古自治区)
  • Jiangsu (江苏)
  • Jiangxi (江西)
  • Jilin (吉林)
  • Liaoning (辽宁)
  • Ningxia (宁夏回族自治区)
  • Qinghai (青海)
  • Shaanxi (陕西)
  • Shandong (山东)
  • Shanghai (上海)
  • Shanxi (山西)
  • Sichuan (四川)
  • Tianjin (天津)
  • Xinjiang (新疆维吾尔自治区)
  • Xizang (西藏自治区)
  • Yunnan (云南)
  • Zhejiang (浙江)

Indian states and territories

In addition to the country India, the Indian states and union territories are also provided.

  • Andaman and Nicobar
  • Andhra Pradesh
  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Assam
  • Bihar
  • Chandigarh
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  • Daman and Diu
  • Delhi
  • Goa
  • Gujarat
  • Haryana
  • Himachal Pradesh
  • Jammu and Kashmir
  • Jharkhand
  • Karnataka
  • Kerala
  • Lakshadweep
  • Madhya Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Nagaland
  • Orissa
  • Puducherry
  • Punjab
  • Rajasthan
  • Sikkim
  • Tamil Nadu
  • Tripura
  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Uttarakhan
  • West Bengal

Changelog

Version 2.1 (ecoinvent 3.3)

The following electricity grids were added:

  • Brazil, North-eastern grid
  • Brazil, Northern grid
  • Brazil, South-eastern and Mid-western grid
  • Brazil, Southern grid
  • India, Islands
  • India, North-eastern grid
  • India, Northern grid
  • India, Southern grid
  • India, Western grid

Additionally, all states and union territories in both India and Brazil were added.

The composite geometries Europe without Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Russia and Europe without Switzerland and France were also added.

Version 2.0 (ecoinvent 3.2)

No locations used in ecoinvent 3.01 or 3.1 have been removed, and no location shortnames or UUIDs have been changed. Ecoinvent geography definitions version 2.0 should therefore be backwards-compatible with version 1.0.

The following locations were added:

The location Al producing Area 6A&B, West, East, and Central Europe, which was not used in ecoinvent 3.01 or 3.1, has been split into Aluminium producing area, EU27 and EFTA countries and Aluminium producing area, Europe outside EU27 and EFTA.

Note

Sovereign military bases are necessary in version 2 for a consistent world topology.

The following names were changed, mostly due to changes in the source data, or to choose the common instead of formal names:

New name Old name
IAI producing Area 8, Gulf Region IAI producing Area 8, Gulf-Aluminium Council/Gulf Region
Aland Åland Islands
Bolivia Bolivia, Plurinational State of
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba
British Virgin Islands Virgin Islands, British
Brunei Brunei Darussalam
East Timor Timor-Leste
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern Territories
Guinea Bissau Guinea-Bissau
Hong Kong S.A.R. Hong Kong
Iran Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Ivory Coast Cote d’Ivoire
Laos Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Macao S.A.R Macau
Macedonia Macedonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of
Moldova Moldova, Republic of
North Korea Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of
Palestine Palestinian Territory, Occupied
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn
Réunion Reunion
Russia Russian Federation
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Korea Korea, Republic of
Southern Asia South Asia
Syria Syrian Arab Republic
Taiwan Taiwan, Province of China
Tanzania Tanzania, United Republic Of
The Bahamas Bahamas
United States of America United States
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands, U.S.
Vatican Holy See (Vatican City State)
Vietnam Viet Nam
Yukon Yukon Territory

The following unused locations have been removed:

Location Comment
Central and Eastern Europe  
Christmas Island Now included in Indian Ocean Territories
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Now included in Indian Ocean Territories
Spain, including overseas territories  

Version 1.0 (ecoinvent 3.01 & 3.1)

Initial development. Removal of locations no longer used in the ecoinvent database.

Notes on specific geometries

Some images are large, and can be opened in a separate tab to be seen in full detail.

Global and Rest of the World

The Global dataset does not have a KML description.

The Rest of the world dataset is a dynamic concept that exists in the situation when both a global dataset and one or more non-global datasets are available for the same activity, time period, and macro-economic scenario. The definitions is specific to each activity and depends on what defined geographies are available for the specific activity name. It is defined as the difference between the global reference dataset and the datasets with defined geographies. The “rest of world” dataset does not have a set KML description.

UN Regions and subregions

UN regions and subregions follow the UN macro geographical regions definitions.

UN regions

Note

Taiwan is included in the UN region Asia and the UN subregion Eastern Asia, even though it is not officially listed in the UN definitions.

_images/UN-regions.png

UN subregions

The UN subregion Latin America and the Caribbean, not shown, includes the Caribbean, and Central and South America.

_images/UN-subregions.png

Europe and Asia

The following locations are given:

  • Europe (short name RER)
  • Asia (short name RAS)
  • Europe, UN Region (short name UN-EUROPE)
  • Asia, UN Region (short name UN-ASIA)

We differentiate between the UN definitions of Europe and Asia (which are constrained to including or excluding entire countries), and the common understanding of the border between Europe and Asia. There is no clear line dividing Europe and Asia. The UN regions are defined following the UN macro geographical regions. Russia is split by federal subjects, with the following federal subjects in Europe:

Adygey Arkhangel’sk Astrakhan’ Bashkortostan
Belgorod Bryansk Chechnya Chuvash
City of St. Petersburg Dagestan Ingush Ivanovo
Kabardin-Balkar Kaliningrad Kalmyk Kaluga
Karachay-Cherkess Karelia Kirov Komi
Kostroma Krasnodar Kursk Leningrad
Lipetsk Mariy-El Mordovia Moskovsskaya
Moskva Murmansk Nenets Nizhegorod
North Ossetia Novgorod Orel Orenburg
Penza Perm’ Pskov Rostov
Ryazan’ Samara Saratov Smolensk
Stavropol’ Tambov Tatarstan Tula
Tver’ Udmurt Ul’yanovsk Vladimir
Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl’

The following Russian federal subjects are in Asia:

Altay Amur Buryat Chelyabinsk
Chita Chukchi Autonomous Okrug Gorno-Altay Irkutsk
Kamchatka Kemerovo Khabarovsk Khakass
Khanty-Mansiy Krasnoyarsk Kurgan Maga Buryatdan
Novosibirsk Omsk Primor’ye Sakha (Yakutia)
Sakhalin Sverdlovsk Tomsk Tuva
Tyumen’ Yamal-Nenets Yevrey  

Note

The definition of Europe and Asia have changed in version 2.0, to match Russian federal subject borders. In version 1.0, Europe also included parts of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey - these countries are now completely inside Asia.

Note

Both Europe and Europe, UN Region include all of Spain, including the Canary Islands and a few small exclaves in Africa.

_images/Asia-Europe.png

In addition to the country Russia, the regions Russia (Asia) and Russia (Europe) are given, following the federal subject boundaries given above.

_images/Russia.png

Aluminium-producing regions

Aluminium is not produced in every country in the world, and the following producing regions are given:

  • IAI producing Area 1, Africa
  • IAI producing Area 2, North America
  • IAI producing Area 2, North America, without Quebec
  • IAI producing Area 3, South America
  • IAI producing Area 4 and 5, South and East Asia, without China
  • Aluminium producing area, EU27 and EFTA countries
  • Aluminium producing area, Europe outside EU27 and EFTA
  • IAI producing Area 8, Gulf Region

Note that there is an overlap between IAI producing Area 2, North America and IAI producing Area 2, North America, without Quebec.

_images/Aluminium.png

Electricity networks

The following networks are in Europe and North America are provided:

  • European Network of Transmission Systems Operators for Electricity
  • Florida Reliability Coordinating Council
  • HICC
  • Midwest Reliability Organization
  • Northeast Power Coordinating Council
  • ReliabilityFirst Corporation
  • SERC Reliability Corporation
  • Southwest Power Pool
  • Texas Regional Entity
  • Western Electricity Coordinating Council
  • Alaska Systems Coordinating Council

North American networks

In Europe, ENTSO-E is made up of countries. In the United States and Canada, the boundaries between NERC regions is made up of state/province boundaries and hand-drawn boundaries traced from NERC maps.

_images/NA.png

USA-only subnetworks

NERC regions which cross the Canadian border have also been split into USA-only networks for market reasons.

_images/USA.png

India

India has been split into five electricity grids. The location India, Islands contains both Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshadweep.

_images/India.png

Brazil

Brazil has been split into four electricity grids.

_images/Brazil.png

Legacy networks

In addition to these current networks, the following legacy European networks are provided:

  • Nordic Countries Power Association
  • Union for the Co-ordination of Electricity
  • Baltic System Operator
_images/UCTE.png
  • Central European Power Association
_images/Central-European.png

Norway

Bouvet Island and Svalbard and Jan Mayen are distinct locations with ISO 3166-1 codes and are not included in Norway.

France

France is what is commonly called metropolitan France. It does not include the following locations which all have ISO 3166-1 codes:

  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia
  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  • Guadeloupe
  • Martinique
  • Mayotte
  • New Caledonia
  • Réunion
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Wallis and Futuna

In addition, France does not include the uninhabited Clipperton Island, which is given as a separate location.

The location France, including overseas territories includes metropolitan France, as well as French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion.

Spain

Spain includes the Canary Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, and the Plazas de soberanía.

Micronesia

The country is called Micronesia, Federated States of. The UN subregion is called Micronesia.

United States of America

The location United States of America includes the 50 states and Washington D.C. The following are given as separate locations:

  • American Samoa
  • Guam
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Puerto Rico
  • United States Minor Outlying Islands
  • United States Virgin Islands